We screened for the prognostic value of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) through a multicentric study of 2,257 operable breast cancer patients who did not received adjuvant therapy. Three hundred and seven local-regional recurrences, 105 metachronous contralateral breast cancer, 589 metastases and 537 deaths from cancer had been diagnosed with a median follow-up of years. A total of 69% of the tumors were ER positive and 54% PR positive. For statistical analysis, 1,665 patients were studied because of complete clinical and biological data. In univariate analysis, ER and PR status were of prognostic value for the metastases-free interval (MFI) and the overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis (Cox proportional hazard model), only the ER status showed a significant difference between positive and negative groups regarding the MFI and OS. By using Cox regression model with time-dependent covariates, we show that the predictive value of ER status of the primary tumor decreases by approximately 20% per year, losing its significance after 8 years of follow-up. These results show that ER and PR status have a relatively limited predictive value and their major interest remain in the domain of therapeutic decision.
Not shortly after Roger Maris record was broken, another baseball player, Jason Giambi and various other athletes were either suspected of, or proven to have, taken anabolic steroids. Again, Congress convened a hearing, and just as they did the first time in 1990, they did not determine that steroids were a danger, but rather that the danger was more in protecting professional sports organizations. The updated statute has been updated to proscribe pro-hormones also The definition of an anabolic steroid as defined currently in the United States under (41)(A) is that "anabolic steroid" means any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone (other than estrogens , progestins, corticosteroids, and dehydroepiandrosterone (7).
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is thought to mainly function as a transporter and reservoir for the estradiol and testosterone sex hormones. However it has also been demonstrated that SHBG can bind to a cell surface receptor (SHBG-R). The SHBG-R has not been completely characterized. A subset of steroids are able to bind to the SHBG/SHBG-R complex resulting in an activation of adenylyl cyclase and synthesis of the cAMP second messenger.  Hence the SHBG/SHBG-R complex appears to act as a transmembrane steroid receptor that is capable of transmitting signals to the interior of cells.