Non steroidal topical immunomodulators

NSAIDs have anti-inflammatory (reduce inflammation), analgesic (relieve pain) and antipyretic (lower temperature) effects. Although different NSAIDs have different structures, they all work by blocking cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. There are two main types of COX enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. Both types produce prostaglandins; however, the main function of COX-1 enzymes is to produce baseline levels of prostaglandins that activate platelets and protect the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, whereas COX-2 enzymes are responsible for releasing prostaglandins after infection or injury. Prostaglandins have a number of different effects, one of which is to regulate inflammation. Most NSAIDs inhibit both enzymes, although a few are available that mainly inhibit COX-2. The pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs are mainly due to inhibition of COX-2, and their unwanted side effects are largely due to inhibition of COX-1.

Register for alerts
If you have registered for alerts, you should use your registered email address as your username

  • Citation tools Download this article to citation manager Arfè Andrea , Scotti Lorenza , Varas-Lorenzo Cristina , Nicotra Federica , Zambon Antonella , Kollhorst Bianca et al. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of heart failure in four European countries: nested case-control study BMJ 2016; 354 :i4857
    • BibTeX (win & mac) Download
    • EndNote (tagged) Download
    • EndNote 8 (xml) Download
    • RefWorks Tagged (win & mac) Download
    • RIS (win only) Download
    • Medlars Download
    Help If you are unable to import citations, please contact technical support for your product directly (links go to external sites):

    ■ 15 – 20 minutes: The onset of anesthesia begins at this point. The feeling of numbness is starting to spread out in the target area.
    ■ 45 – 60 minutes: The anesthesia has infiltrated the entire target area. The loss of sensation in the superficial layer prevents any feeling of pain or discomfort. Quick and simple dermal procedures can be performed at this stage.
    ■ 60 – 90 minutes: The peak of anesthesia effect. In most cases, this is the best time to start a more complex dermal procedure because the efficacy is at its highest.
    ■ 90 – 120 minutes: The duration of maximum anesthesia effect is approximately sustained up to this point.
    ■ 120 – 180 minutes: The anesthesia effect will gradually diminish. Re-application is highly recommended for another extended period of time.

    In studies lasting 6 to 12 weeks, topical diclofenac and topical ketoprofen were significantly more effective than carrier for reducing pain; about 60% of participants had much reduced pain. With topical diclofenac, the NNT for clinical success in six trials (2343 participants) was (95% confidence interval ( CI ) to 16) (moderate quality evidence). With topical ketoprofen, the NNT for clinical success in four trials (2573 participants) was ( to ) (moderate quality evidence). There was too little information for analysis of other individual topical NSAIDs compared with carrier. Few trials compared a topical NSAID to an oral NSAID , but overall they showed similar efficacy (low quality evidence). These efficacy results were almost completely derived from people with knee osteoarthritis.

    Non steroidal topical immunomodulators

    non steroidal topical immunomodulators

    In studies lasting 6 to 12 weeks, topical diclofenac and topical ketoprofen were significantly more effective than carrier for reducing pain; about 60% of participants had much reduced pain. With topical diclofenac, the NNT for clinical success in six trials (2343 participants) was (95% confidence interval ( CI ) to 16) (moderate quality evidence). With topical ketoprofen, the NNT for clinical success in four trials (2573 participants) was ( to ) (moderate quality evidence). There was too little information for analysis of other individual topical NSAIDs compared with carrier. Few trials compared a topical NSAID to an oral NSAID , but overall they showed similar efficacy (low quality evidence). These efficacy results were almost completely derived from people with knee osteoarthritis.

    Media:

    non steroidal topical immunomodulatorsnon steroidal topical immunomodulatorsnon steroidal topical immunomodulatorsnon steroidal topical immunomodulatorsnon steroidal topical immunomodulators