Ergogenic effects of anabolic steroids

In writing this article I am not suggesting that athletes use caffeine nor am I supporting the use of performance enhancing drugs. I am simply reviewing the use of caffeine as an ergogenic aid as well as the known health consequences. Athletes must individually decide whether or not it is appropriate to use this drug -- both in competition and day-to-day. All of the information for this article came from the current medical literature. Those of you who take prescription medications or who are under a physician's care should check with your doctor about the relevance of caffeine to your health. [email protected]

Educating Athletes
It’s important for RDs to understand that supplement use is widespread among athletes of all ages and at every level. Aspiring athletes as young as those in middle school are using Adolescents often feel pressure to obtain athletic scholarships and look to ergogenic aids as a way to realize their goals. That’s problematic because RDs don’t have evidence supporting the use of nutritional ergogenic aids in young athletes. “Most of the research we have on ergogenic aids is done on the adult population over the age of 18,” Mangieri says.

Arginine Carglumate:
1. Tan, B., Yin, Y., Liu, Z., Li, X., Xu, H., Kong, X., … & Wu, G. (2009). Dietary L-arginine supplementation increases muscle gain and reduces body fat mass in growing-finishing pigs. Amino acids, 37(1), 169-175.
2. Huk, I., Nanobashvili, J., Neumayer, C., Punz, A., Mueller, M., Afkhampour, K., … & Patton, S. (1997). L-arginine treatment alters the kinetics of nitric oxide and superoxide release and reduces ischemia/reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle. Circulation, 96(2), 667-675.
3. Yao, K., Yin, Y. L., Chu, W., Liu, Z., Deng, D., Li, T., … & Wu, G. (2008). Dietary arginine supplementation increases mTOR signaling activity in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs. The Journal of nutrition, 138(5), 867-872.
4. Jobgen, W., Meininger, C. J., Jobgen, S. C., Li, P., Lee, M. J., Smith, S. B., … & Wu, G. (2008). Dietary L-arginine supplementation reduces white fat gain and enhances skeletal muscle and brown fat masses in diet-induced obese rats. The Journal of nutrition, jn-108.
5. Tseh, Wayland1; Cioci, Brian ; Morgan, Don W. FACSM2 The Effects of Arginine Alpha-Ketoglutarate Supplementation on Endurance-Trained Females http:///acsm-msse/Citation/2008/05001/The_Effects_of_Arginine_Alpha_
6. Thomas S. Rector, PhD; Alan J. Bank, MD; Kathleen A. Mullen, RN; Linda K. Tschumperlin, RN; Ronald Sih, MD; Kamalesh Pillai, MD; Spencer H. Kubo, MD Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Supplemental Oral L-Arginine in Patients with Heart Failure http:///content/93/12/
7. E Morikawa, M A Moskowitz, Z Huang, T Yoshida, K Irikura and T Dalkara L-arginine infusion promotes nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation, increases regional cerebral blood flow, and reduces infarction volume in the rat. http:///content/25/2/
8. S M Gardiner, A M Compton, T Bennett, R M Palmer, S Moncada Control of regional blood flow by endothelium-derived nitric oxide.

With caffeine, as with any drug or supplement, there is the potential for abuse and misuse. A recent cover story in . News & World Report cited the increased use and abuse of caffeinated drinks such as Red Bull, especially among adolescents (Shute 2007). The growing appeal of high-octane energy drinks has had some officials concerned enough to act. The FDA recently sent a warning letter to Redux Beverages LLC of Las Vegas—the manufacturer of Cocaine Energy Drink—for marketing the beverage “as an alternative to an illicit street drug.” The company’s own website used the terms “cocaine—instant rush.” [ Editor’s note: In early May, the product was pulled from shelves nationwide; the company reintroduced the drink under a new name in mid-June.] Elsewhere, a high school in Colorado Springs, Colorado, recently banned a drink called Spike Shooter after two students were taken to the hospital complaining of nausea, vomiting and heart palpitations after drinking an 8-ounce can, which contains 300 mg of caffeine (Shute 2007).

Ergogenic effects of anabolic steroids

ergogenic effects of anabolic steroids

With caffeine, as with any drug or supplement, there is the potential for abuse and misuse. A recent cover story in . News & World Report cited the increased use and abuse of caffeinated drinks such as Red Bull, especially among adolescents (Shute 2007). The growing appeal of high-octane energy drinks has had some officials concerned enough to act. The FDA recently sent a warning letter to Redux Beverages LLC of Las Vegas—the manufacturer of Cocaine Energy Drink—for marketing the beverage “as an alternative to an illicit street drug.” The company’s own website used the terms “cocaine—instant rush.” [ Editor’s note: In early May, the product was pulled from shelves nationwide; the company reintroduced the drink under a new name in mid-June.] Elsewhere, a high school in Colorado Springs, Colorado, recently banned a drink called Spike Shooter after two students were taken to the hospital complaining of nausea, vomiting and heart palpitations after drinking an 8-ounce can, which contains 300 mg of caffeine (Shute 2007).

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